9. Dhu-l-Hidscha يوم العرفة / Yaumu-l-Arafa


The day before the feast of sacrifice and highlight of the pilgrimage. On that day the pilgrims go to Mount Arafat near Mecca. For the other Muslims this day is a preparation day for the Kurban festival. They visit graves, pray for the deceased and recite from the Koran. 


10. Dhu-l-Hidscha عيد الأضحى / Id-ul-Adha / Kurbanfest (Annäherungsfest/ Opferfest)


This is the highest celebration which begins on the 10th of the last Islamic month and marks the climax and conclusion of the pilgrimage in Mecca. Muslims remember Abraham and his son Ismael, who was to be sacrificed for God. Abraham's devotion and the sacrifice of his beloved Son ultimately rewarded God with the turning away from the human sacrifice itself and the appreciation of human life. God relieved Abraham and his son of their heavy burden by sending a lamb instead of his son as a sacrificial animal. In this sense, all Muslims commemorate annually this special event in which they share the flesh of the sacrificed animal with the family, the needy and visitors.


1. Muharram راس سنة الهجري / Islamisches Neujahr


The Islamic calendar begins in the year 622. n. Chr. with the emigration of the prophet from Mecca to Medina. According to this calendar, the year 1441 begins.


10. Muharram يوم العاشوراء / Aschura / Aschura Tag


According to Muslim tradition, important events took place on this day: the landing of Noah's Ark on Mount Ararat, the salvation of the prophets Abraham and Moses and the forgiveness of Adam. For Shiites this day is of great importance. These holidays conclude the ten-day period of mourning for Hussain, the Prophet's grandchild.


1./2. Neujahrsfest רֹאֹשׁ הַשָּׁנָה Rosch Haschana (Kopf des Jahres)


The name Rosh Hashanah does not appear in the Bible, and even in the prayers of this feast there is hardly any mention of it. It is the "day of remembrance" or "day of the trumpet sound". It is the beginning of the 10 days of penance which end with Yom Kippur. The meaning of the two-day New Year celebration lies in the remembrance of the covenant made between God and Israel. The day is to serve to induce people to go into themselves, to turn away from evil and to act well. Rosh Hashanah is the day on which man should give an account of his actions and become aware of his moral duties. To Rosh Hashanah it is a tradition to eat an apple, which is spread with honey before consumption, thereby expressing the wish that the New Year may be good and sweet. The breads for the New Year are not braided and elongated as usual, but it is common to use round wrapped white breads to symbolize the annual cycle.


10. Tischri יוֹם כִּפּוּר Jom Kippur


The highlight of the ten days of penance is the Day of Atonement, the most important feast day of the Jewish year. Tradition has it that the day of atonement is the day of the sealing and validity of the judgement made on New Year's Day, the day of judgment. The Day of Atonement is to serve to atone for man, to let him obtain divine forgiveness for his misdeeds. Thus the Day of Atonement is a day of repentance, repentance and conversion. Yom Kippur is a strict day of fasting, the service lasts a whole day.


15.- 22- Tischri סֻכּוֹת Sukkot


Sukkot is the third in the series of pilgrimage festivals. It lasts nine or seven days, since the eighth day, the so-called closing feast (Schemini Azeret), is regarded as an independent holiday; the ninth day, called Simchat Tora (Torah Joy), is the second day of this closing feast, which is celebrated only in the diaspora. The Feast of Tabernacles is celebrated for a total of seven days. It is a Thanksgiving and Remembrance Festival. Since the people of Israel wandered through the desert for 40 years, they built unstable huts. As a memento, Jews build a sukka (the hut) and eat there together.


23. Tischri שִׂמְחַת תּוֹרָה Simchat Tora


The Tora Joy Festival reminds us that God gave the Ten Commandments to the people of Israel through Moses, and thus also gave the Torah. In the Jewish year the Tora is read once completely. On this feast of joy the Jews celebrate that the Tora has been read to end and is being started again at the same time. 
At Simchat Tora the annual cycle of Tora readings ends, and it is begun again from the beginning; so on this day the conclusion and the beginning of the Five Books of Moses will be read out. In the divine service all existing Tora rolls are taken out of the cupboard and carried in a procession seven times around the reading stage or through the synagogue room.


11. Rabi`u-l-Awwal مولد النبي / Maulid an-Nabi / Geburtstag des Propheten Muhammed


Sunnis commemorate the birth of the Prophet Muhammad on this night, while Shiites usually celebrate it a few days later on the 17th Rabi`u-l-Awwal. On this occasion poems are written, recited and passages from the Koran are recited.


Buß- und Bettag


The day of repentance and prayer always takes place on the last Wednesday of the church year, i.e. before the Sunday of eternity. On this day Christians reflect on their sins, show repentance and reflect on their faith.




On Eternity Sunday (also known as Death Sunday) the commemoration of the persons who died in the past church year is held. 




The Advent season marks the beginning of the church year and the preparation for Christmas. Advent (by adventus domini "Arrival of the Lord") was fixed by Pope Gregory in the 7th century at four weeks and always begins on a Sunday. On the so-called Advent wreath a further candle is lit every Sunday and is supposed to point to the light that came into the world through Christ - this custom, however, did not come into being until the 19th century, but it is still widespread in the secular world. Throughout Advent Christians reflect on their faith and are encouraged to do positive things.


25. Kislew- 2. Tewet חֲנֻכָּה Chanukka (Weihe)


The eight-day temple consecration is a joyful day of remembrance and does not belong to the biblically prescribed holidays. It commemorates the successful uprising of the Maccabees against Hellenistic rule and the reunification of the desecrated temple in Jerusalem in 165 B.C.E. It is said that in the sanctuary desecrated by the Syrians only one intact oil jar was found, the contents of which would normally have been enough fuel for the seven-armed temple lamp only for one day. But by a miracle this small quantity of oil is said to have lasted for eight days, so that new pure oil could be produced in the meantime. Usually an eight-armed candlestick (menorah) is used today. On the first evening a light is lit, on the second two lights, until then on the eighth day all lights burn.


Heilig Abend


Christmas time begins with the eve just before the feast days. On this evening and the following days the birth of Jesus is celebrated, who according to the Gospel of Luke (Bible, Lk 2, 1-7) was born by Mary in a stable in Bethlehem. Before that, Mary, who was pregnant, had to go to Bethlehem with her husband Joseph to take part in a census. Since there was no place to stay in the whole city, she gave birth to her son in a stable.

In church services this story is told or shown as a play (" Krippenspiel" since the 11th century), a preaching is held and praise is sung about the birth of Jesus. 




On the two Christmas holidays the birth of Jesus is celebrated as well as the spreading of the message of his birth. An angel announced the birth of a new king to the farmers in the field (Bible, Lk 2, 8-12).